ACRA 2002

Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation 2002

Werner Friedrich and Patrick Lim (eds)

Auckland, 2002
ISBN 0-909040-90-7

All full papers submitted to ACRA 2002 will undergo a peer-review process. Each manuscript will be reviewed by at least two reviewers who will give detailed comments. If the submission is accepted, the authors will submit a revised (“camera-ready”) version that takes into account this feedback. The review process is managed by the program chair of the conference.

All papers are reviewed using a single-blind review process: authors declare their names and affiliations in the manuscript for the reviewers to see, but reviewers do not know each other’s identities, nor do the authors receive information about who has reviewed their manuscript.

Welcome to ACRA 2002

The ACRA conference series is an annual conference of the Australian Robotics and Automation Association. I am delighted that this year, for the first time, the ACRA Conference was held in Auckland, New Zealand as the Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation. ACRA 2002 brought together researchers from both sides of the Tasman Sea in an informal setting to present and to discuss new and current work.

New Zealand has an active and growing community of robotics researchers in a wide variety of application areas, many complimentary to the Australian robotics scene. As an overview of the NZ robotics landscape, two guest speakers introduced robotics activities at the University of Waikato and at Massey University – the location of the conference.

Over 40 papers were accepted for oral and poster presentation at ACRA 2002; 28 of these were from Australian research groups and, with 18 papers, the conference attracted its fair share from New Zealand participants. With this amount of New Zealand support, I am convinced that future ACRA conferences will continue to enjoy a significant contribution from New Zealand. The combined conference will promote extended interaction between the various robotics groups in the two countries. For this reason, a name change for the ARAA to Australasian Robotics and Automation Association is now entirely appropriate.

ACRA 2002 continues last year’s introduction of electronic publication of the Proceedings on CD-ROM and also offers a poster session in line with many international workshops and conferences. Both full written papers and posters were peer reviewed for technical and editorial content by a dedicated committee of referees. The papers were presented in 11 short sessions including two streams in the afternoon over two full days with an additional morning for lab tours at Auckland University and Industrial Research.

We thank all authors, reviewers and participants for their contributions.

Werner Friedrich
Chairman ACRA
Auckland, November 2002

on behalf of the Programme Committee.


Sponsoring Organisations

Australian Robotics and Automation Association Incorporated

General Chair

Werner Friedrich

Program Committee

David Austin Glen Bright
Dale Carnegie Chis Cook
Peter Corke Reg Dunlop
Hugh Durrant-Whyte Ray Jarvis
Reinhard Klette Patrick Lim
Bruce MacDonald Philip McKerrow
Fazel Naghdy Jonathan Roberts
Andy Russell James Trevelyan
Peter Xu


Werner Friedrich and Patrick Lim

Local Arrangements

Glen Bright
Niven Brown
Werner Friedrich
Shona Horne
Patrick Lim
Richard Templer

Table of contents

Guest Speakers

Mechatronics Research at Massey University

Glen Bright G1
An AGV Development Program

Dale Carnegie G2

Learning Systems

An Environment for Robot Learning

Andrew Russell 1
Performance Metrics for Robot Coverage Tasks

Sylvia Wong, Lee Middleton and Bruce A. MacDonald 7
Producing Complex Behaviours on Trajectory Velocity Learning Mobile Robots

Koren Ward 13
Online Learning of Autonomous Helicopter Control

Gregg Buskey, Jonathan Roberts, Gordon Wyeth 19

Robotic Applications

Robots in Urban Search and Rescue Operations

David Greer, Phillip McKerrow, Jo Abrantes 25
Dragline Bucket Carry Angle Control

Peter Ridley and Rindert Algra 31
Visual Servoing of a Car-like Vehicle – An Application of Omni-directional Vision

Kane Usher, Peter Ridley and Peter Corke 37
Innovative Robotic Applications for Beef Processing

Richard Templer, Andrew Osborn, Arun Nanu, Keith Blenkinsopp and Werner Friedrich 43

Vision in Control

Mechatronic Controller for Tele-Operated Camera Platform

Sylvester Tlale, Glen Bright, Johan Potgieter 48
Vectorized Machine Vision Algorithms using AltiVec

Bing-Chang Lai, Phillip John McKerrow and Jo Abrantes 54
Terrain Imaging and Perception using Millimetre Wave Radar

S. Scheding, G. Brooker, R. Hennessy, M. Bishop and A. Maclean 60
Problems Encountered in the Implementation of Tsai’s Algorithm for Camera Calibration

Michael Tapper and Phillip J. McKerrow and Jo Abrantes 66

Dynamics and Control

Low-Cost Flight Control System for a Small Autonomous Helicopter

Jonathan M. Roberts, Peter I Corke & Gregg Buskey 71
Computer Simulation of Robot Closed-loop Dynamics for Force Control Study

Yueshi Shen and Roy Featherstone 77
Grasp Recognition From Myoelectric Signals

Simon Ferguson and G Reg Dunlop 83
Application of Shared Telerobotic Control for Contour Following Processes

Patrick Lim, Jeffery Yang, Nicholas Hildreth and Werner Friedrich 88

Sensing and Actuation I

Sensorless Force Estimation for Robots with Friction

John W.L Simpson, Chris D Cook, Zheng Li 94
A Robust, Sensitive and Economical Tactile Sensor for a Robotic Manipulator

Greg Hellard and R. Andrew Russell 100
Interacting with a Sensor Network

Ron Peterson and Daniela Rus 105
A Comparison Between Extended Kalman Filtering and Sequential Monte Carlo Technique for Simultaneous Localisation and Map-building

David C.K. Yuen and Bruce A. MacDonald 111

Robot Design I

Improved Mecanum Wheel Design for Omni-directional Robots

Olaf Diegel, Aparna Badve, Glen Bright, Johan Potgieter, Sylvester Tlale 117
A Nitinol Wire Actuated Stewart Platform

G Reg Dunlop and Angelo C Garcia 122

Robot Design II

Mechatronics for Designing Intelligent Machines

W.L. Xu and G. Bright 128
An Articulated Six Wheel Drive Robot for Very Rough Terrain Navigation

Ray Jarvis 133
Mechatronic Modular Design of an Apparatus for PC board Inspection

Sylvester Tlale; Glen Bright; Johan Potgieter; Peter Xu 139
Design of a Four-Rotor Aerial Robot

P. Pounds, R. Mahony, P. Hynes and J. Roberts 145


Automation of an Underground Mining Vehicle using Reactive Navigation and Opportunistic Localization

Elliot S. Duff, Jonathan M. Roberts and Peter I. Corke 151
Autonomous Recharging for Mobile Robotics

Kirill Kouzoubov and David Austin 157
Driver Assistance based on Vehicle Monitoring and Control

Lars Petersson, Nicholas Apostoloff and Alexander Zelinsky 163
Field Navigation of Mobile Robots

Andrew B. Lintott and Lan Le Ngoc 169

Sensing and Actuation II

Sensing Airflow by a Humanoid Robot

R. Andrew Russell 175
Object Exploration using Whisker Sensors

Jaury A. Wijaya and R. Andrew Russell 180
Modelling of a novel rotary pneumatic muscle

N. Yee and G. Coghill 186
Grasping Unknown Objects with a Humanoid Robot

Geoffrey Taylor and Lindsay Kleeman 191

HMI / Wireless Control

Human-to-robot skill transfer through haptic rendered environment

Y. Chen, and F. Naghdy 197
Wireless Network Control for Internet Manufacturing

Johan Potgieter; Glen Bright; W.L. Xu; Olaf Diegel and Sylvester Tlale 202
Design of a Web-Based Tele-Programming Interface for Mobile Robots

David Austin 206
Internet control of a Domestic Robot using a Wireless LAN

Johan Potgieter, Glen Bright, Olaf Diegel, and Sylvester Tlale 212

Vision in Control II

Six-Dimensional Visualization of End-Effector Pose Using Color Spaces

Joshua D. Petitt and Karol Miller 216
FastSLAM: Real Time Implementation in Outdoor Environments

Juan Nieto, Jose Guivant and Eduardo Nebot 222
3D Vision for Large-Scale Outdoor Environments

Dorian J. Spero and Ray A. Jarvis 228
Bearing-Only SLAM using Colour-based Feature Tracking

Trevor Fitzgibbons and Eduardo Nebot 234

Poster Session

The Engineering of an Automated and Portable DNA Analysis System

Daksh Sadarangani P1
Developing Intelligent Robots using Computer Game Engines

Félix Trépanier P2

Index of authors

Abrantes, Jo 255466
Algra, Rindert 31
Apostoloff, Nicholas 163
Austin, David 157206
Badve, Aparna 117
Bishop, Mark 60
Blenkinsopp, Keith 43
Bright, Glen G148117128139202212
Brooker, Graham 60
Buskey, Gregg  1971
Carnegie, Dale G2
Chen, Jason (Y.) 197
Coghill, George 186
Cook, Christopher 94
Corke, Peter  3771151
Diegel, Olaf  117202212
Duff, Elliot  151
Dunlop, G. Reg  83122
Featherstone,  Roy 77
Ferguson, Simon  83
Fitzgibbons, Trevor  234
Friedrich, Werner  4388
Garcia, Angelo  122
Greer, David  25
Guivant, Jose  222
Hellard, Greg  100
Hennessy, R.  60
Hildreth, Nicholas  88
Hynes, P 145
Jarvis, Ray 133228
Kleeman, Lindsay 191
Kouzoubov, Kirill 157
Lai, Bing-Chang 54
Le Ngoc, Lan  169
Li, Zheng  94
Lim, Patrick  88
Lintott, Andrew  169
MacDonald, Bruce  7111
McKerrow, Phillip  255466
MacLean, A  60
Mahony, R.  145
Middleton, Lee  7
Miller, Karol  216
Naghdy, Fazel  197
Nanu, Arun  43
Nebot, Eduardo  222234
Nieto, Juan  222
Osborn, Andrew  43
Peterson, Ron  105
Petersson, Lars 163
Petitt, Joshua  216
Potgieter, Johan 48117139202212
Pounds, P.  145
Ridley, Peter 3137
Roberts, Jonathan  1971145151
Rus, Daniela  105
Russell, Andrew  1100175180
Sadarangani, Daksh  P1
Scheding, Steve  60
Shen, Yueshi  77
Simpson, John  94
Spero, Dorian  228
Tapper, Michael  66
Taylor, Geoffrey  191
Templer, Richard.  43
Tlale, Silvester  48117139202212
Tr�panier, F�lix P2
Usher, Kane  37
Ward, Koren  13
Wijaya, Jaury  180
Wong, Sylvia  7
Wyeth, Gordon  19
Xu, W.L. Peter  128139202
Yang, Jeffrey  88
Yee, N.  186
Yuen, David  111
Zelinsky, Alexander  163